Role of ICT in the Classroom

Radio and television have been used widely as educational tools since the 1920s and the 1950s, respectively. There are three general approaches to the use of radio and TV broadcasting in education:
direct class teaching, where broadcast programming substitutes for teachers on a temporary basis;
school broadcasting, where broadcast programming provides complementary teaching and learning resources not otherwise available
general educational programming over community, national and international stations which provide general and informal educational opportunities.

In Asia, the 44 radio and TV universities in China (including the China Central Radio and Television University), Universitas Terbuka in Indonesia, and Indira Ghandi National Open University have made extensive use of radio and television, both for direct class teaching and for school broadcasting, to reach more of their respective large populations. For these institutions, broadcasts are often accompanied by printed materials and audio cassettes.

Videoconferencing allows the exchange not just of voice and graphics but also of moving images. Videoconferencing technology does not use telephone lines but either a satellite link or television network (broadcast/cable).
Web-based conferencing, as the name implies, involves the transmission of text, and graphic, audio and visual media via the Internet; it requires the use of a computer with a browser


How have computers and the Internet been used for teaching and learning?

There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely:
Learning about computers and the Internet, in which technological literacy is the end goal;
It typically includes:

  • Fundamentals: basic terms, concepts and operations
  • Use of the keyboard and mouse
  • Use of productivity tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, data base and graphics programs
  • Use of research and collaboration tools such as search engines and email
  • Basic skills in using programming and authoring applications such as Logo or HyperStudio
  • Developing an awareness of the social impact of technological change.

Learning with computers and the Internet, in which the technology facilitates learning across the curriculum;

  • Presentation, demonstration, and the manipulation of data using productivity tools
  • Use of curriculum-specific applications types such as educational games, drill and practice, simulations, tutorials, virtual laboratories, visualizations and graphical representations of abstract concepts, musical composition, and expert systems
  • Use of information and resources on CD-ROM or online such as encyclopedia, interactive maps and atlases, electronic journals and other references. 

Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies before they can actually use them to learn. However, there have been attempts to integrate the two approaches.

Learning through computers and the Internet, integrating technological skills development with curriculum applications.
It involves learning the technological skills “just-in-time” or when the learner needs to learn them as he or she engages in a curriculum-related activity. For example, secondary school students who must present a report on the impact on their community of an increase in the price of oil for an Economics class may start doing research online, using spreadsheet and database programs to help organize and analyze the data they have collected, as well using a word processing application to prepare their written report.

 


Internet used in distance education

Many higher educational institutions offering distance education courses have started to leverage the Internet to improve their programme’s reach and quality. The Virtual Universities use a combination of print, live and recorded broadcasts, and the Internet to deliver courses to students across vast geographical areas.

Telecollaboration

Online learning involving students logging in to formal courses online is perhaps the most commonly thought of application of the Internet in education. However, it is by no means the only application. Web-based collaboration tools, such as email, listservs, message boards, real-time chat, and Web-based conferencing, connect learners to other learners, teachers, educators, scholars and researchers, scientists and artists, industry leaders and politicians—in short, to any individual with access to the Internet who can enrich the learning process.


School Management Systems

Special software provides the tools and real-time information schools need to track student progress. Data across student information system contributes to student progress and these softwares ensure that up-to-date data is available to the responsible decision makers.
These software are flexible, easy-to-use system for managing student and contact information.

school management systems

Some of the features of these software

  • Registration: Efficiently track students as they enter, withdraw, and register throughout the year and switch between schools. Produce enrollment and dropout reports . Track registration categories such as town, program, grade levels and more.
  • Attendance: Maintain and track daily and class attendance histories. Easily gather statistical data for an entire district, school, class or group of students. Produce reports based on average daily membership and average daily attendance.
  • Health: Records visits to the nurse, registers immunizations, tracks state immunization compliance, provides for in-depth nurse's and doctor's screenings, schedules times for dispensing medications, and provides health histories, all in a very secure and user-friendly environment. Group editing of records saves time.
  • Cafeteria Management: Easily track cafeteria transactions, patron information. Generate reports on all areas of data maintained by the system: monthly reimbursement, patron list, patron balance, amount tendered, meal counts, terminal transactions, record of cash receipts, and more! Parents may view their child's transaction history through their web browser.
  • Assessment Reporting:Streamline the process of storing and analyzing test scores of the students in schools. With the help of these softwares complete assessment history for each student can be tracked. Record and report on an unlimited number of test scores for each student and choose whether the scores will appear on the student’s permanent transcripts. Run reports and analyze the results for the entire student population or an individual student’s entire test history.
  • School-To-Home Communication: These software keep parents informed through the 24/7 Internet-based communication portal. Parent's can check assignments, grades, attendance, teacher comments and other information using their web browser. Email progress reports, report cards and schedules. Parents can even view their child's cafeteria transaction history online & may add funds via credit card. Automatic telephone voice messaging effectively notifies of attendance issues, disciplinary actions, school events and more.