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Frequently Asked Questions - Individual as Consumer and Producer

FAQs - Individual as Consumer and Producer

The answer should include 4 points with brief explanation. Avoid writing in a list style. 

Role of commercial banks:

  • accept deposits
  • lend to customers 
  • enable customers to make payments 
  • travellers cheques/foreign currency 
  • deposit important documents 
  • source of financial advice.


Functions of money: 

  • means of exchange 
  • unit of account/measure of value 
  • standard for deferred payments 
  • store of value. 

In order to get full marks, the answer should include 4 functions with description.

The usual trend of income change is as follows:

There is low earnings at the start in a job, earnings gradually rise with more experience and reach a high point before retirement. However, retirement income is likely to be lower. The income might also be affected by the change in demand for occupation over a lifetime.

The discussion will include a two sided discussion on the importance of wages. The response might include that:

certainly wages are a very important factor to be taken into account. However, other factors also influence the choice of occupation for individuals. These might include:

  • working conditions/health and safety
  • promotion prospects
  • hours of work
  • proximity to home
  • canteen/sports facilities
  • pension provision
  • skills/education
  • fringe benefits.

A one-sided answer can gain only half the marks.

TAGS: wages

It is true in most of the cases however, wages also depend on: 

  • experience 
  • skills 
  • training 
  • promotion. 


Factors that can affect an individual’s choice of occupation: 

  • wages/salaries 
  • bonuses/commission 
  • pension 
  • holiday entitlement 
  • proximity to home 
  • promotion prospects 
  • working conditions 
  • canteen/social facilities. 

A brief description for each point is required to achieve full marks. 

Benefits of a trade union to an individual: 

  • collective bargaining to improve pay 
  • working on behalf of members in terms of working conditions, pension entitlement 
  • protecting the rights of members, e.g. in a legal dispute 
  • acting on behalf of members in discussions with government.


Key word "Discuss' Two sided discussion.

Potential disadvantages: 

  • there might be industrial action 
  • powerful unions/industrial action could lead to disruption of the economy 
  • this could lead to a firm going out of business, causing an increase in unemployment 
  • this could affect output and damage reputation of country 
  • powerful trade unions could lead to higher wages 
  • making products uncompetitive in world markets. 

Potential advantages:

  • can work with employers, not always against them 
  • can work with government, e.g. to support legislation. 


TAGS: trade union


Involves comparing the importance of function of money as a medium of exchange as compared to barter (the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services without using money )

The problem with barter was that it relied on a double coincidence of wants, this wasn’t always possible and the use of money as a means of exchange avoids this. 

Money is also significantly better as a measure of value, a store of value and a standard for deferred payments.

Possible reasons: 

  • some individuals run into financial difficulties 
  • some individuals are spending ‘beyond their means’ 
  • some individuals may be more aware of what is available from financial institutions 
  • some individuals may be better able to pay the money back 
  • some individuals may be able to provide more security 
  • some individuals may have a need of money for a very short period of time, e.g. until the next pay day 
  • some individuals may have a greater need for something, e.g. a car or a holiday and borrow for the medium term to pay for it 
  • some individuals may wish to buy a house and may borrow for a long period of time, e.g. a mortgage to purchase a house which is often for 25 years. 


TAGS: borrow

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