Guide to Referencing

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Measuring Development - Single Indicators

GNI per capita

GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, divided by the midyear population.

GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions.

To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

 
Data from World Bank
 
 

 

GDP per capita (current US$)

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population.

GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

 

 
Data from World Bank

 

 

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

 

 
Data from World Bank

 

Health Indicators

 

Health Indicator

Description

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)

 

Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15-19.

 

Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people)

 

Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)

 

Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

Contraceptive prevalence (% of women ages 15-49)

 

Contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of women who are practicing, or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form of contraception. It is usually measured for married women ages 15-49 only.

Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)

 

Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.

Fertility rate, total (births per woman)

 

Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates.

Health expenditure per capita (current US$)

 

Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Health expenditure, public (% of total health expenditure)

 

Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.

Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)

 

Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.

Immunization, DPT (% of children ages 12-23 months)

 

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine.

Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)

 

Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine.

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)

 

Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.

Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access)

 

Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.

Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)

 

Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases.

Life expectancy at birth, female (years)

 

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

Life expectancy at birth, male (years)

 

Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

Malnutrition prevalence, height for age (% of children under 5)

 

Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age 5 whose height for age (stunting) is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. For children up to two years old height is measured by recumbent length. For older children height is measured by stature while standing. The data are based on the WHO's new child growth standards released in 2006.

Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age (% of children under 5)

 

Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. The data are based on the WHO's new child growth standards released in 2006.

Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)

 

Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence.

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

live births in a given year.

Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000

Notified cases of malaria (per 100,000 people)

 

Malaria incidence is expressed as the number of new cases of malaria per 100,000 people each year. The number of cases reported is adjusted to take into account incompleteness in reporting systems, patients seeking treatment in the private sector, self-medicating or not seeking treatment at all, and potential over-diagnosis through the lack of laboratory confirmation of cases.

Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private expenditure on health)

 

Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure.

Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

 

Population, age 0-14 (% of total) is the population between the ages of 0 and 14 as a percentage of the total population.

Population ages 15-64 (% of total)

 

Population, age 15-64 (% of total) is the population between the ages of 15 and 64 as a percentage of the total population.

Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

 

Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin.

Population, female (% of total)

 

Population, female (% of total) is the percentage of the population that is female.

Population growth (annual %)

 

Population growth (annual %) is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage.

Population, total

 

Population, total refers to the total population.

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

 

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy.

Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)

 

Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group.

Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)

 

Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group.

Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)

 

Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.

Teenage mothers (% of women ages 15-19 who have had children or are currently pregnant)

 

Teenage mothers are the percentage of women ages 15-19 who already have children or are currently pregnant.

Unmet need for contraception (% of married women ages 15-49)

 

Unmet need for contraception is the percentage of fertile, married women of reproductive age who do not want to become pregnant and are not using contraception.

source: World Bank

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